Bitcoin Mining Equipment Explained in Details

Era Swap Network White Paper

Era Swap Network White Paper

Era Swap Network

White Paper



DISCLAIMER
This Whitepaper is for Era Swap Network. Its purpose is solely to provide prospective community members with information about the Era Swap Ecosystem & Era Swap Network project. This paper is for information purposes only and does not constitute and is not intended to be an offer of securities or any other financial or investment instrument in any jurisdiction.
The Developers disclaim any and all responsibility and liability to any person for any loss or damage whatsoever arising directly or indirectly from (1) reliance on any information contained in this paper, (2) any error, omission or inaccuracy in any such information, or (3) any action resulting therefrom
Digital Assets are extremely high-risk, speculative products. You should be aware of the risks involved and fully consider before participating in Digital assets whether it’s appropriate for you. You should only participate if you are an experienced investor with sophisticated knowledge of financial markets and you fully understand the risks associated with digital assets. We strongly advise you to take independent professional advice before making any investment or participating in any way. You should check what rules and protections apply to your respective jurisdictions before investing or participating in any way. The Creators & community will not compensate you for any losses from trading, investment or participating in any way. You should read whitepaper carefully before participating and consider whether these products are right for you.

TABLE OF CONTENT

· Abstract
· Introduction to Era Swap Network
· Development Overview
· Era Swap Utility Platform
· Alpha-release Development Plan
· Era Swap Network Version 1: Specification
· Bunch Structure: 10
· Converting ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
· Conclusion:
· Era Swap Ecosystem
· Social Links

Abstract

The early smart contracts of Era Swap Ecosystem like TimeAlly, Newly Released Tokens, Assurance, BetDeEx of Era Swap Ecosystem, are deployed on Ethereum mainnet. These smart contracts are finance-oriented (DeFi), i.e. most of the transactions are about spending or earning of Era Swap tokens which made paying the gas fees in Ether somewhat intuitive to the user (withdrawal charges in bank, paying tax while purchasing burgers) but transactions that are not token oriented like adding a nominee or appointee voting also needs Ether to be charged. As more Era Swap Token Utility platform ideas kept appending to the Era Swap Main Whitepaper, more non-financial transaction situations arise like updating status, sending a message, resolving a dispute and so on. Paying extensively for such actions all day and waiting for the transaction to be included in a block and then waiting for enough block confirmations due to potential chain re-organizations is counter-intuitive to existing free solutions like Facebook, Gmail. This is the main barrier that is stopping Web 3.0 from coming to the mainstream.
As alternatives to Ethereum, there are few other smart contract development platforms that propose their own separate blockchain that features for higher transaction throughput, but they compromise on decentralization for improving transaction speeds. Moreover, the ecosystem tools are most advancing in Ethereum than any other platform due to the massive developer community.
With Era Swap Network, the team aims to achieve scalability, speed and low-cost transactions for Era Swap Ecosystem (which is currently not feasible on Ethereum mainnet), without compromising much on trustless asset security for Era Swap Community users.

Introduction to Era Swap Network

Era Swap Network (ESN) aims to solve the above-mentioned problems faced by Era Swap Ecosystem users by building a side-blockchain on top of Ethereum blockchain using the Plasma Framework.
Era Swap Network leverages the Decentralisation and Security of Ethereum and the Scalability achieved in the side-chain, this solves the distributed blockchain trilema. In most of the other blockchains, blocks are a collection of transactions and all the transactions in one block are mined by a miner in one step. Era Swap Network will consist of Bunches of Blocks of Era Swap Ecosystem Transactions.

Decentralization

Layer 2


Scalable and Secure

A miner mines all the blocks in a bunch consequently and will commit the bunch-root to the ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet.

Development Overview
Initially, we will start with a simple Proof-of-Authority (PoA) based consensus of EVM to start the development and testing of Era Swap Ecosystem Smart Contracts as quickly as possible on the test-net. We will call this as an alpha-release of ESN test-net and only internal developers will work with this for developing smart contracts for Era Swap Ecosystem. User’s funds in a Plasma implementation with a simple consensus like PoA are still secured as already committed bunch-roots cannot be reversed.
Eventually, we want to arrive on a more control-decentralized consensus algorithm like Proof-of-Stake (PoS) probably, so that even if the chain operator shuts down their services, a single Era Swap Ecosystem user somewhere in the world can keep the ecosystem alive by running software on their system and similarly more people can join to decentralize the control further. In this PoS version, we will modify the Parity Ethereum client in such a way, that at least 50% of transaction fees collected will go to the Luck Pool of NRT Smart Contract on Ethereum mainnet and rest can be kept by miner of the blocks/bunch of blocks if they wish. After achieving such an implementation, we will release this as a beta version to the community for testing the software on their computers with Kovan ERC20 Era Swaps (Ethereum test-net).

Era Swap Decentralised Ecosystem
Following platforms are to be integrated:
  1. Era Swap Token Contract (adapted ERC20 on Ethereum) The original asset will lie on Ethereum to avoid loss due to any kind of failure in ESN.
  2. Plasma Manager Contract (on Ethereum) To store ESN bunch headers on Ethereum.
  3. Reverse Plasma Manager Contract (on ESN) Bridge to convert ES to ES native and ES native to ES. User deposits ES on Mainnet Plasma, gives proof on ESN and gets ES native credited to their account in a decentralised way.
  4. NRT Manager Contract (on Ethereum or on ESN) If it is possible to send ES from an ESN contract to luck pool of NRT Manager Contract on Ethereum, then it’s ok otherwise, NRT Manager will need to be deployed on ESN for ability to add ES to luck pool.
  5. Era Swap Wallet (React Native App for managing ESs and ES natives) Secure wallet to store multiple private keys in it, mainly for managing ES and ES native, sending ES or ES native, also for quick and easy BuzCafe payments.
  6. TimeAlly (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
  7. Assurance (on Ethereum or on ESN) On whichever chain NRT Manager is deployed, TimeAlly would be deployed on the same chain.
  8. DaySwappers (on ESN) KYC manager for platform. For easily distributing rewards to tree referees.
  9. TimeSwappers (on ESN) Freelance market place with decentralised dispute management.
  10. SwappersWall (on ESN) Decentralised social networking with power tokens.
  11. BuzCafe (on ESN) Listing of shops and finding shops easily and quick payment.
  12. BetDeEx (on ESN) Decentralised Prediction proposals, prediction and results.
  13. DateSwappers (on ESN) Meeting ensured using cryptography.
  14. ComputeEx (on Ethereum / centralised way) Exchange assets.
  15. Era Swap Academy (on ESN / centralised way) Learn. Loop. Leap. How to implement ES Academy is not clear. One idea is if content is constantly being modified, then subscription expired people will only have the hash of old content while new content hash is only available to people who have done Dayswapper KYC and paid for the course. Dayswapper KYC is required because this way people won’t share their private keys to someone else.
  16. Value of Farmers (tbd) The exchange of farming commodities produced by farmers in VoF can be deposited to warehouses where the depositors will get ERC721 equivalent tokens for their commodities (based on unique tagging).
  17. DeGameStation (on ESN) Decentralised Gaming Station. Games in which players take turns can be written in Smart Contract. Games like Chess, Poker, 3 Patti can be developed. Users can come to DeGameStation and join an open game or start a new game and wait for other players to join.

Alpha-release Development Plan
  1. Deploying Parity Node customized according to Era Swap Whitepaper with PoA consensus.
  2. Setting up Plasma Smart Contracts.
  3. Creating a bridge for ERC20 Swap from Ethereum test-net to ESN alpha test-net.

Alpha Version
Era Swap Network Version 1 : Specification
The Version 1 release of ESN plans to fulfill the requirements for political decentralisation and transparency in dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem using Blockchain Technology. After acquiring sufficient number of users, a version 2 construction of ESN will be feasible to enable administrative decentralization, such that the Era Swap Ecosystem will be run and managed by the Era Swap Community and will no longer require the operator to support for it's functioning.
Era Swap Network (ESN) Version 1 will be a separate EVM-compatible sidechain attached to Ethereum blockchain as it’s parent chain. ESN will achieve security through Plasma Framework along with Proof-of-Authority consensus for faster finality. The idea behind plasma framework is to avoid high transaction fees and high transaction confirmation times on Ethereum mainnet by instead doing all the ecosystem transactions off-chain and only post a small information to an Ethereum Smart Contract which would represent hash of plenty of ecosystem transactions. Also, to feature movement of Era Swap Tokens from Ethereum blockchain to ESN using cryptographic proof, reverse plasma of Ethereum on ESN will be implemented.
Also, submitting hash of each ESN blocks to ESN Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum would force ESN to have a block time equal to or more than Ethereum’s 15 second time as well as it would be very much costly for operator to post lot of hashes to an Ethereum Smart Contract. This is why, merkle root of hashes of bunch of blocks would instead be submitted to ESN Plasma Smart Contact on Ethereum.
Actors involved in the ESN:
  1. Block Producer Nodes Lesser the number of nodes, quicker is the block propagation between block producers which can help quick ecosystem transactions. We find that 7 block producers hosted on different could hosting companies and locations reduces the risk of single point of failure of Era Swap Ecosystem and facilitates 100% uptime of dApps. Block Producer Nodes will also be responsible to post the small information to the Blockchain.
  2. Block Listener Nodes Rest of the nodes will be Block Listeners which will sync new blocks produced by the block producer nodes. Plenty of public block listener nodes would be setup in various regions around the world for shorter ping time to the users of Era Swap Ecosystem. Users would submit their Era Swap Ecosystem transactions to one of these public nodes, which would relay them to rest of the Era Swap Network eventually to the block producer nodes which would finalize a new block including the user transaction.
  3. Bunch Committers This will be an instance in the block producers which will watch for new blocks confirmed on ESN and will calculate bunch merkle roots and will submit it to ESN Plasma Smart Contract. This instance will also post hash of new Ethereum blocks to ESN (after about 10 confirmations) for moving assets between both the blockchain.
  4. Users These will be integrating with dApps which would be connected to some public ESN nodes or they can install a block listner node themselves. They can sign and send transactions to the node which they are connected to and then that node will relay their transactions to block producer nodes who would finalise a block including their transaction.

Bunch Structure

A Bunch Structure in Smart Contract will consist of the following:
• Start Block Number: It is the number of first ESN block in the bunch.
• Bunch Depth: It is Merkle Tree depth of blocks in the bunch. For e.g. If bunch depth is 3, there would be 8 blocks in the bunch and if bunch depth is 10, there would be 1024 blocks in the bunch. Bunch depth of Bunches on ESN Plasma Contract is designed to be variable. During the initial phases of ESN, it would be high, for e.g. 15, to avoid ether expenditure and would be decreased in due course of time.
• Transactions Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the transaction roots in the bunch. This is used by Smart Contract to verify that a transaction was sent on the chain.
• Receipts Mega Root: This value is the merkle root of all the receipt roots in the bunch. This is used to verify that the transaction execution was successful.
• Timestamp: This value is the time when the bunch proposal was submitted to the smart contract. After submission, there is a challenge period before it is finalised.

Converting ES-ERC20 to ERC-NA and BACK

On Ethereum Blockchain, the first class cryptocurrency is ETH and rest other tokens managed by smart contracts are second class. On ESN, there is an advancement to have Era Swaps as the first class cryptocurrency. This cryptocurrency will feature better user experience and to differentiate it from the classic ERC20 Era Swaps, it will be called as Era Swap Natives (ES-Na). According to the Era Swap Whitepaper, maximum 9.1 Million ES will exist which will be slowly released in circulation every month.
Era Swaps will exist as ES-ERC20 as well as in form of ES-Na. One of these can be exchanged for the other at 1:1 ratio.
Following is how user will convert ES-ERC20 to ES-Na:
  1. User will give allowance to a Deposit Smart Contract, and following that call deposit method to deposit tokens to the contract.
  2. On transaction confirmation, user will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit string for the user. This string is generated by fetching all the transactions in the Ethereum Block and generating a Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block and the Receipts Patricia Merkle Proof to confirm that the user’s transaction was successful.
  3. Using the same portal, user will submit the generated proofs to a Smart Contract on ESN, which would release funds to user. Though, user will have to wait for the Etheruem block roots to be posted to ESN after waiting for confirmations which would take about 3 minutes. Once, it’s done user’s proofs will be accepted and will receive exact amount of ES- Na on ESN.
Following is how user will convert ES-Na to ES-ERC20:
  1. ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, user will simply send ES-Na to a contract.
  2. User will paste the transaction hash on a portal which will generate a Proof of Deposit for the user. Again ES-Na being first class cryptocurrency, Transaction Patricia Merkle Proof is enough to prove that user’s transaction was indeed included in the block. Another thing which will be generated is the block inclusion proof in the bunch.
  3. User will have to wait for the bunch confirmation to the Plasma Smart Contract and once it’s done, user can send the proof to the Plasma Smart Contract to receive ES-ERC20.

HARD Exit

Since the blocks are produced and transactions are validated by few block producers, it exposes a possibility for fraud by controlling the block producer nodes. Because ESN is based on the Plasma Model, when failure of sidechain occurs or the chain halts, users can hard exit their funds directly from the Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum by giving a Proof of Holdings.

HOld ES Tokens Swapping with New ES Tokens

The old ES Tokens will be valueless as those tokens will not be accepted in ESN because of NRT (New Released Tokens) and TimeAlly contracts on mainnet which is causing high gas to users, hence reducing interactions. Also, there was an event of theft of Era Swap Tokens and after consensus from majority of holders of Era Swap Tokens; it was decided to create a new contract to reverse the theft to secure the value of Era Swap Tokens of the community. Below is the strategy for swapping tokens:
TimeAlly and TSGAP: Majority of Era Swap Community have participated in TimeAlly Smart Contract in which their tokens are locked for certain period of time until which they cannot move them. Such holders will automatically receive TimeAlly staking of specific durations from the operator during initialization of ESN.
Liquid Tokens: Holders of Liquid Era Swap Tokens have to transfer the old tokens to a specified Ethereum wallet address managed by team. Following that, team will audit the token source of the holder (to eliminate exchange of stolen tokens) and send new tokens back to the wallet address.

Post-Genesis Tokens Return Program

Primary asset holding of Era Swap tokens will exist on Ethereum blockchain as an ERC20 compatible standard due to the highly decentralised nature of the blockchain. Similar to how users deposit tokens to an cryptocurrency exchange for trading and then withdraw the tokens back, users will deposit tokens to ESN Contract to enter Era Swap Ecosystem and they can withdraw it back from ESN Contract for exiting from ecosystem network. The design of the token system will be such that, it will be compatible with the future shift (modification or migration of ESN version 1) to ESN version 2, in which an entirely new blockchain setup might be required.
To manage liquidity, following genesis structure will be followed:

Holder ES-ERC20 ES-Na
Team Wallet 1.17 billion (Circulating Supply) 0
Locked in Smart Contract 7.93 billion (pending NRT releases) 9.1 billion
Though it looks like there are 9.1 * 2 = 18.2 Billion ES, but the cryptographic design secures that at any point in time at least a total of 9.1 billion ES (ES-ERC20 + ES-Na) will be locked. To unlock ES-Na on ESN, an equal amount of ES-ERC20 has to be locked on Ethereum and vice-versa.
9.1 billion ES-ERC20 will be issued by ERC20 smart contract on Ethereum Blockchain, out of which the entire circulating supply (including liquid and TimeAlly holdings) of old ES will be received to a team wallet.
TimeAlly holdings of all users will be converted to ES-Na and distributed on ESN TimeAlly Smart Contract by team to the TimeAlly holders on their same wallet address.
Liquid user holdings will be sent back to the users to the wallet address from which they send back old ES tokens (because some old ES are deposited on exchange wallet address).
ES-Na will be issued in the genesis block to an ESN Manager Smart Contract address. It will manage all the deposits and withdrawals as well as NRT releases.

Attack Vectors


Following are identified risks to be taken care of during the development of ESN:
Network Spamming: Attackers can purchase ES from the exchange and make a lot of transactions between two accounts. This is solved by involving gas fees. A setting of 200 nanoES minimum gas price will be set, which can be changed as per convenience.
DDoS: Attackers can query public nodes for computationally heavy output data. This will overload the public node with requests and genuine requests might get delayed. Block producers RPC is private, so they will continue to produce blocks. To manage user’s denial of service, the provider in dApps needs to be designed in such a way such that many public nodes will be queried simple information (let’s say latest block number) and the one which response quickly to user will be selected.
AWS is down: To minimize this issue due to cloud providers down, there will be enough nodes on multiple cloud providers to ensure at least one block producer is alive.
User deposit double spending: User deposits ES on Ethereum, gets ES-Na on ESN. Then the issue happens that there are re-org on ETH mainnet and the user’s transaction is reversed. Since ETH is not a fixed chain and as per PoW 51% attack can change the blocks. As Ethereum is now enough mature and by statistics forked blocks are at most of height 2. So it is safe to consider 15 confirmations.
Exit Game while smooth functioning: User starts a hard exit directly from Plasma Smart Contract on Ethereum, then spends his funds from the plasma chain too. To counter this, the exit game will be disabled, only when ESN halts, i.e. fails to submit block header within the time the exit game starts. This is because it is difficult to mark user’s funds as spent on ESN.
Vulnerability in Ecosystem Smart Contracts: Using traditional methods to deploy smart contracts results in a situation where if a bug is found later, it is not possible to change the code. Using a proxy construction for every ecosystem smart contract solves this problem, and changing a proxy can be given to a small committee in which 66% of votes are required, this is to prevent a malicious change of code due to compromising of a single account or similar scenario.
ChainID replay attacks: Using old and traditional ways to interact with dApps can cause loss to users, hence every dApp will be audited for the same.

Conclusion

Era Swap Network is an EVM-compatible sidechain attached to the Ethereum blockchain through Plasma Framework. This allows off-chain processing of Era Swap Ecosystem transactions and posting only the hash of the bunch to Ethereum. This greatly reduces the high network fee and confirmation time issues faced by the current Era Swap Ecosystem DApps deployed on Ethereum. Also, having a separate EVM-compatible blockchain tailored to Era Swap Ecosystem improves the user experience to a higher extent. Since by design, Plasma Framework makes the Era Swap Network as secure as the Ethereum Network, user's funds on the network would be secure as well.
We believe Era Swap Network will help scale dApps of Era Swap Ecosystem to onboard the increasing numbers of users.


Era Swap Ecosystem
Era Swap Ecosystem consist of multiple interlinked platforms which is powered by Era swap (ES) token, a decentralized utility token to be used on below utility platforms. Users can access the Platforms through Era Swap Life which is the Single Sign on (SSO) gateway to the one world of Era Swap Ecosystem.
Era Swap Life: https://eraswap.life/
TimeAlly DApp -> Decentralized Token Vesting: https://www.timeally.io/
BetDeEx -> Decentralized prediction platform: https://www.betdeex.com/
Swappers Wall -> Social Time Ledgerise: https://timeswappers.com/swapperswall
TimeSwappers -> Global P2P marketplace: https://timeswappers.com/
BuzCafe -> Connects local P2P outlets: https://buzcafe.com/
DaySwappers -> Unique Affiliate Program: https://dayswappers.com/
Era Swap Academy -> E-mart for skill development: https://eraswap.academy/
Value of Farmers (VOF) -> Farming ecosystem: http://valueoffarmers.org/ coming soon
ComputeEx -> P2P lending and borrowing: https://computeex.net/ coming soon
DateSwappers -> Next gen dating: coming soon
Smart Contract address

Era Swap Token (ES)
https://etherscan.io/address/0xef1344bdf80bef3ff4428d8becec3eea4a2cf574#code

Newly Released Token (NRT) https://etherscan.io/address/0x20ee679d73559e4c4b5e3b3042b61be723828d6c#code

TimeAlly DApp
https://etherscan.io/address/0x5630ee5f247bd6b61991fbb2f117bbeb45990876#code

BetDeEx DApp https://etherscan.io/address/0x42225682113E6Ed3616B36B4A72BbaE376041D7c#code
TSGAP DApp
https://etherscan.io/address/0xbad9af4db5401b7d5e8177a18c1d69c35fc03fd3#code

White Paper
Era Swap Whitepaper: https://eraswaptoken.io/pdf/eraswap_whitepaper.pdf
Era Swap Light Paper: https://eraswaptoken.io/pdf/eraswap_lightpaper.pdf

Howey Test
Howey Test: https://eraswaptoken.io/era-swap-howey-test-letter-august7-2018.php

Era Swap SOCIAL LINKS
Telegram: https://t.me/eraswap
Twitter: https://twitter.com/eraswaptec
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/eraswap/
Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/eraswap/
BitcoinTalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5025979.msg45502457
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCGCP4f5DF1W6sbCjS6y3T1g
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/eraswap/
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/useEraSwap
Medium: https://medium.com/@eraswap
Tumblr: https://eraswap.tumblr.com/
Mix: https://mix.com/eraswap
Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/eraswapt/
GitHub: https://github.com/KMPARDS/EraSwapSmartContracts
submitted by EraSwap to u/EraSwap [link] [comments]

Which type of curren(t) do you want to see(cy)? A analysis of the intention behind bitcoin(s). [Part 2]

Part 1
It's been a bit of time since the first post during which I believe things have crystallised further as to the intentions of the three primary bitcoin variants. I was going to go on a long winded journey to try to weave together the various bits and pieces to let the reader discern from themselves but there's simply too much material that needs to be covered and the effort that it would require is not something that I can invest right now.
Firstly we must define what bitcoin actually is. Many people think of bitcoin as a unit of a digital currency like a dollar in your bank but without a physical substrate. That's kind of correct as a way to explain its likeness to something many people are familiar with but instead it's a bit more nuanced than that. If we look at a wallet from 2011 that has never moved any coins, we can find that there are now multiple "bitcoins" on multiple different blockchains. This post will discuss the main three variants which are Bitcoin Core, Bitcoin Cash and Bitcoin SV. In this respect many people are still hotly debating which is the REAL bitcoin variant and which bitcoins you want to be "investing" in.
The genius of bitcoin was not in defining a class of non physical objects to send around. Why bitcoin was so revolutionary is that it combined cryptography, economics, law, computer science, networking, mathematics, etc. and created a protocol which was basically a rule set to be followed which creates a game of incentives that provides security to a p2p network to prevent double spends. The game theory is extremely important to understand. When a transaction is made on the bitcoin network your wallet essentially generates a string of characters which includes your public cryptographic key, a signature which is derived from the private key:pub key pair, the hash of the previous block and an address derived from a public key of the person you want to send the coins to. Because each transaction includes the hash of the previous block (a hash is something that will always generate the same 64 character string result from EXACTLY the same data inputs) the blocks are literally chained together. Bitcoin and the blockchain are thus defined in the technical white paper which accompanied the release client as a chain of digital signatures.
The miners validate transactions on the network and compete with one another to detect double spends on the network. If a miner finds the correct solution to the current block (and in doing so is the one who writes all the transactions that have elapsed since the last block was found, in to the next block) says that a transaction is confirmed but then the rest of the network disagree that the transactions occurred in the order that this miner says (for double spends), then the network will reject the version of the blockchain that that miner is working on. In that respect the miners are incentivised to check each other's work and ensure the majority are working on the correct version of the chain. The miners are thus bound by the game theoretical design of NAKAMOTO CONSENSUS and the ENFORCES of the rule set. It is important to note the term ENFORCER rather than RULE CREATOR as this is defined in the white paper which is a document copyrighted by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009.

Now if we look at the three primary variants of bitcoin understanding these important defining characteristics of what the bitcoin protocol actually is we can make an argument that the variants that changed some of these defining attributes as no longer being bitcoin rather than trying to argue based off market appraisal which is essentially defining bitcoin as a social media consensus rather than a set in stone rule set.
BITCOIN CORE: On first examination Bitcoin Core appears to be the incumbent bitcoin that many are being lead to believe is the "true" bitcoin and the others are knock off scams. The outward stated rationale behind the bitcoin core variant is that computational resources, bandwidth, storage are scarce and that before increasing the size of each block to allow for more transactions we should be increasing the efficiency with which the data being fed in to a block is stored. In order to achieve this one of the first suggested implementations was a process known as SegWit (segregating the witness data). This means that when you construct a bitcoin transaction, in the header of the tx, instead of the inputs being public key and a signature + Hash + address(to), the signature data is moved outside of header as this can save space within the header and allow more transactions to fill the block. More of the history of the proposal can be read about here (bearing in mind that article is published by the bitcoinmagazine which is founded by ethereum devs Vitalik and Mihai and can't necessarily be trusted to give an unbiased record of events). The idea of a segwit like solution was proposed as early as 2012 by the likes of Greg Maxwell and Luke Dash Jnr and Peter Todd in an apparent effort to "FIX" transaction malleability and enable side chains. Those familiar with the motto "problem reaction solution" may understand here that the problem being presented may not always be an authentic problem and it may actually just be necessary preparation for implementing a desired solution.
The real technical arguments as to whether moving signature data outside of the transaction in the header actually invalidates the definition of bitcoin as being a chain of digital signatures is outside my realm of expertise but instead we can examine the character of the individuals and groups involved in endorsing such a solution. Greg Maxwell is a hard to know individual that has been involved with bitcoin since its very early days but in some articles he portrays himself as portrays himself as one of bitcoins harshest earliest critics. Before that he worked with Mozilla and Wikipedia and a few mentions of him can be found on some old linux sites or such. He has no entry on wikipedia other than a non hyperlinked listing as the CTO of Blockstream. Blockstream was a company founded by Greg Maxwell and Adam Back, but in business registration documents only Adam Back is listed as the business contact but registered by James Murdock as the agent. They received funding from a number of VC firms but also Joi Ito and Reid Hoffman and there are suggestions that MIT media labs and the Digital Currency Initiative. For those paying attention Joi Ito and Reid Hoffman have links to Jeffrey Epstein and his offsider Ghislaine Maxwell.

Ghislaine is the daughter of publishing tycoon and fraudster Robert Maxwell (Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch, a yiddish orthodox czech). It is emerging that the Maxwells are implicated with Mossad and involved in many different psyops throughout the last decades. Greg Maxwell is verified as nullc but a few months ago was outed using sock puppets as another reddit user contrarian__ who also admits to being Jewish in one of his comments as the former. Greg has had a colourful history with his roll as a bitcoin core developer successfully ousting two of the developers put there by Satoshi (Gavin Andreson and Mike Hearn) and being referred to by Andreson as a toxic troll with counterpart Samon Mow. At this point rather than crafting the narrative around Greg, I will provide a few links for the reader to assess on their own time:
  1. https://coinspice.io/news/btc-dev-gregory-maxwell-fake-social-media-account-accusations-nonsense/
  2. https://www.trustnodes.com/2017/06/06/making-gregory-maxwell-bitcoin-core-committer-huge-mistake-says-gavin-andresen
  3. https://www.ccn.com/gavin-andresen-samson-mow-and-greg-maxwell-toxic-trolls//
  4. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/01/17/business/dealbook/the-bitcoin-believer-who-gave-up.html
  5. https://www.coindesk.com/mozilla-accepting-bitcoin-donations
  6. https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/networks/the-bitcoin-for-is-a-coup
  7. https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/68pusp/gavin_andresen_on_twitter_im_looking_for_beta/dh1cmfl/
  8. https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/d14qee/can_someone_post_the_details_of_the_relationships/?ref=tokendaily
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/court-docs-detail-sexual-misconduct-allegations-against-bitcoin-consultant-peter-todd
  10. https://coinspice.io/news/billionaire-jeffrey-epstein-btc-maximalist-bitcoin-is-a-store-of-value-not-a-currency/
  11. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7579851/More-300-paedophiles-arrested-worldwide-massive-child-abuse-website-taken-down.html
  12. https://news.bitcoin.com/risks-segregated-witness-opening-door-mining-cartels-undermine-bitcoin-network/
  13. https://micky.com.au/craig-wrights-crackpot-bitcoin-theory-covered-by-uks-financial-times/
  14. https://www.reddit.com/btc/comments/74se80/wikipedia_admins_gregory_maxwell_of_blockstream/

Now I could just go on dumping more and more articles but that doesn't really weave it all together. Essentially it is very well possible that the 'FIX' of bitcoin proposed with SegWit was done by those who are moral reprobates who have been rubbing shoulders money launderers and human traffickers. Gregory Maxwell was removed from wikipedia, worked with Mozilla who donated a quarter of a million to MIT media labs and had relationship with Joi Ito, the company he founded received funding from people associated with Epstein who have demonstrated their poor character and dishonesty and attempted to wage toxic wars against those early bitcoin developers who wished to scale bitcoin as per the white paper and without changing consensus rules or signature structures.
The argument that BTC is bitcoin because the exchanges and the market have chosen is not necessarily a logical supposition when the vast majority of the money that has flown in to inflate the price of BTC comes from a cryptographic USD token that was created by Brock Pierce (Might Ducks child stahollywood pedo scandal Digital Entertainment Network) who attended Jeffrey Epstein's Island for conferences. The group Tether who issues the USDT has been getting nailed by the New York Attorney General office with claims of $1.4 trillion in damages from their dodgey practices. Brock Pierce has since distanced himself from Tether but Blockstream still works closely with them and they are now exploring issuing tether on the ethereum network. Tether lost it's US banking partner in early 2017 before the monstrous run up for bitcoin prices. Afterwards they alleged they had full reserves of USD however, they were never audited and were printing hundreds of millions of dollars of tether each week during peak mania which was used to buy bitcoin (which was then used as collateral to issue more tether against the bitcoin they bought at a value they inflated). Around $30m in USDT is crossing between China to Russia daily and when some of the groups also related to USDT/Tether were raided they found them in possession of hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of counterfeit physical US bills.
Because of all this it then becomes important to reassess the arguments that were made for the implementation of pegged sidechains, segregated witnesses and other second layer solutions. If preventing the bitcoin blockchain from bloating was the main argument for second layer solutions, what was the plan for scaling the data related to the records of transactions that occur on the second layer. You will then need to rely on less robust ways of securing the second layer than Proof Of Work but still have the same amount of data to contend with, unless there was plans all along for second layer solutions to enable records to be deleted /pruned to facilitate money laundering and violation of laws put in place to prevent banking secrecy etc.
There's much more to it as well and I encourage anyone interested to go digging on their own in to this murky cesspit. Although I know very well what sort of stuff Epstein has been up to I have been out of the loop and haven't familiarised myself with everyone involved in his network that is coming to light.
Stay tuned for part 3 which will be an analysis of the shit show that is the Bitcoin Cash variant...
submitted by whipnil to C_S_T [link] [comments]

Powerful New Ethereum Miner Reaches Final Stage Before Mass Production

Powerful New Ethereum Miner Reaches Final Stage Before Mass Production

https://preview.redd.it/ao78avnae4m31.png?width=860&format=png&auto=webp&s=11f62e6227dc7d93e9a6c2c3874782fcd4892b59
News by Coindesk: Wolfie Zhao
After a nine-month delay and $3.8 million of investment, an upstart manufacturer is ready to produce its first batch of powerful new machines for mining cryptocurrencies ethereum and ethereum classic.
Linzhi, based in Shenzen, China, said Wednesday it had ordered 37 wafers from Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, the main parts that will allow it to build about 200 application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) miners.
These sample units will test whether the machines can mine as efficiently as they are designed to do using ethash, the proof-of-work algorithm used on ethereum and ethereum classic.
The testing units, if successful, would mark a major step toward mass production as Linzhi sets out to compete with makers of general-purpose computing chips, such as NIVIDA, as well as mining gear specialists Bitmain and InnoSilicon, which both make ASIC miners for the ethash algorithm.
Roughly five million ether (ETH), the native cryptocurrency on the ethereum network, is being mined every year, which, at its current price, is worth more than $800 million. Even for ethereum classic, which maintains the original ethereum ledger from before a hard fork in 2016, about nine million native ETC gets mined every year, worth more than $60 million.

Powerful chips

Linzhi was founded in February 2018 by Chen Min, a former chip design head at Canaan Creative, maker of the Avalon bitcoin miner. Chen told CoinDesk the new company was completely self-funded with about $4 million as starting capital.
It announced the plan to produce ethash ASIC miners in September 2018 with an ambition to beat the efficiency of most existing equipment. Chen’s target specification for Linzhi’s ethash ASIC miner is set at 1400 mega hashes per second (MH/s) with an electricity consumption level of one kilowatt-hour.
To put those figures in perspective, NVIDIA’s GTX TitanV 8 card is now one of the most profitable piece of equipment on the ethash algorithm, able to compute 656 MH/s at an energy consumption level of 2.1 kWh, according to mining pool f2pool’s miner profitability index,
With ETH’s current price ($180) and network difficulty, as well as an electricity cost of $0.04 per kWh, each GTX TitanV 8 would bring home a daily profit of $7.35. Similarly, if one uses the same GTX TitanV 8 card to mine ETC, which has both a lower price and a lower mining difficulty than ETH, the daily profit would still be around $6.70.
The total computing power racing on ethereum and ethereum classic to compete for block rewards and to secure the two networks is around 160 and 13 tera hashes per second (TH/s), respectively.

Plan A

Since the announcement of its plan, Linzhi has spent almost all of its initial capital on research and development of the chip design, the operations of its dozen-person team, and the order of the first batch of wafers, to bet the sample testing units will deliver the intended mining power.
Linzhi previously said it was aiming to order the first batch of wafers around December in order to have samples ready in April and mass production in June.
Speaking of the delay, the company said:
“We underestimated the complexity of the chip and how long it would take to grow the team and make the company functional. We are cautiously optimistic that we can just move forward the rest of the schedule, which would mean 12/2019 for sample machines and 02/2020 for mass production.”
One possible risk for the business is that the ethereum community has previously voted to activate the so-called ProgPow algorithm in order to remove the edge maintained by large miners that can afford expensive, specialized chips, although the timing for that switch is not yet decided. (Eventually, ethereum developers want to transition from proof-of-work to proof-of-stake, which would eliminate mining altogether.)
When asked if Linzhi has any Plan B if the switch happens, Chen said the company is, in fact, more active in the ETC community, adding:
“Our plan A is to focus on ETC mining. So if ETH will still be an option, that’s something good to have. In the ethereum community, the ProgPow plan still has some uncertainty. For the time being, we don’t see it as a market that we will obtain, so I don’t really care that much.”

Reverse discount

In an arguably counterintuitive move, Chen said the company plans to adopt what it calls a “reverse discount” strategy when it starts to take in pre-orders if sample units prove to be successful. That would mean the more you buy, the more you are likely going to pay.
The reason is to discourage any single entity from buying too many machines and thus concentrating power over the network.
While Linzhi has not yet decided on final pricing for each unit to be sold at pre-orders, it says the goal is to achieve a payback period of four months for individual miners with a relatively small number of orders.
“This is our efforts and contribution to the idea of decentralization,” Chen said, concluding:
“Our sales will go to developers and community first, with a focus on geographical distribution, and potentially with a malus [reverse discount] for large orders. This means that small orders by individuals would be priced to hit the 4 month [return of investment] and larger orders would pay more.”
Mining equipment image via CoinDesk archive
submitted by GTE_IO to u/GTE_IO [link] [comments]

Will I earn money by mining? - An answer to all newcomers

When people start their adventure with Bitcoin, they often go through a small gold fever with the concept of mining (I would know, that's how I started ;) ). Here is a small guide to answer your eternal question "will I make money with it?":
First of all, lets talk about hardware (click on the link for a long and useful list). You won't make money mining bitcoins unless you either have a really high-end GPU from ATI, an FPGA or an ASIC. That's the short answer. Having a decent CPU can be used for Litecoin mining, which can be a small income in itself, but we are here to talk about Bitcoin.
To see whether you will earn any money, you need to input a few pieces of data into a special calculator:
And then there are two magical variables that will either make it all work out, or be doomed for failure: * difficulty - it is automatically filled in by the calculator, but for long-term mining (more than a few weeks), you want to be a pessimist. Multiply the value by 10 for predictions over a few months or 100 for a year or two (it will rise steeply soon) * bitcoin price - also filled by the calculator - it might go up or down in the future, affecting your bottom line. It will probably increase in the long run, but lets be pessimistic and lower that to $10-$20 to make sure we are earning money no matter what
Having all your hard data and your guesses on the last two variables, you put it all into the mining calculator and see what you get. You will get your earnings in BTC and dollars, as well as summary of your costs and when you will brake even, and what will your net income be over your investment period.
Most likely you won't be earning money with Bitcoin mining, and that's okay - mining has become a very specialised process. If you want to invest money into new ASICs, you might be able to turn a tidy profit.
TLDR: Use this to check everything. ASICs may earn you money, GPUs won't anymore.
submitted by ThePiachu to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

The only acceptable "compromise" is SegWit NEVER, bigger blocks NOW. SegWit-as-a-soft-fork involves an "anyone-can-spend" hack - which would give Core/Blockstream/AXA a MONOPOLY on Bitcoin development FOREVER. The goal of SegWit is NOT to help Bitcoin. It is to HURT Bitcoin and HELP Blockstream/AXA.

TL;DR: Adding a poison pill like SegWit to Bitcoin would not be a "compromise" - it would be suicide, because SegWit's dangerous "anyone-can-spend" hack would give a permanent monopoly on Bitcoin development to the corrupt, incompetent, toxic dev team of Core/Blockstream/AXA, who are only interested in staying in power and helping themselves at all costs - even if they end up hurting Bitcoin.
Most of this post will probably not be new information for many people.
It is being provided mainly as a reminder, to counteract the constant flood of lies and propaganda coming from Core/Blocsktream/AXA in their attempt to force this unwanted SegWit poison pill into Bitcoin - in particular, their latest desperate lie: that there could somehow be some kind of "compromise" involving SegWit.
But adding a poison pill / trojan horse like SegWit to our code would not be some kind of "compromise". It would be simply be suicide.
SegWit-as-a-soft-fork is an existential threat to Bitcoin development - because SegWit's dangerous "anyone-can-spend" hack would give a permanent monopoly on Bitcoin development to the corrupt / incompetent centralized dev team of Core/Blockstream/AXA who are directly to blame for the current mess of Bitcoin's crippled, clogged network and drastically falling market cap.
Furthermore, markets don't even do "compromise". They do "winner-takes-all". Any coin adopting SegWit is going to lose, simply because SegWit is such shitty code:
"Compromise is not part of Honey Badger's vocabulary. Such notions are alien to Bitcoin, as it is a creature of the market with no central levers to compromise over. Bitcoin unhampered by hardcoding a 1MB cap is free to optimize itself perfectly to defeat all competition." ~ u/ForkiusMaximus
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5y7vsi/compromise_is_not_part_of_honey_badgers/
SegWit-as-a-soft-fork is a poison-pill / trojan horse for Bitcoin
SegWit is brought to you by the anti-Bitcoin central bankers at AXA and the economically ignorant, central blocksize planners at Blockstream whose dead-end "road map" for Bitcoin is:
AXA is trying to sabotage Bitcoin by paying the most ignorant, anti-market devs in Bitcoin: Core/Blockstream
This is the direction that Bitcoin has been heading in since late 2014 when Blockstream started spreading their censorship and propaganda and started bribing and corrupting the "Core" devs using $76 million in fiat provided by corrupt, anti-Bitcoin "fantasy fiat" finance firms like the debt-backed, derivatives-addicted insurance mega-giant AXA.
Remember: The real goals of Core/Blocsktream/AXA with SegWit are to:
  • permanently supress Bitcoin's price / adoption / network capacity / market cap / growth - via SegWit's too-little, too-late centrally planned 1.7MB blocksize;
  • permanently control Bitcoin development - via SegWit's deadly "anyone-can-spend" hack.
In order to see this, all you need to do is judge Core/Blocsktream/AXA by their actions (and the results of their actions - and by their shitty code):
Purely coincidental... ~ u/ForkiusMaximus
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/6a72vm/purely_coincidental/
Do not judge Core/Blocsktream/AXA by their words.
As we have seen, their words have been just an endless stream of lies and propaganda involving changing explanations and shifting goalposts and insane nonsense - including this latest outrageous concept of SegWit as some kind of "compromise" which some people may be "falling for":
Latest Segwit Trickery involves prominent support for "SW Now 2MB Later" which will lead to only half of the deal being honored. Barry Silbert front and center. Of course.
~ u/SouperNerd
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/6btm5u/latest_segwit_trickery_involves_prominent_support/
The people we are dealing with are the WORST type of manipulators and liars.
There is absolutely NO reason why they should not deliver a 2 MB block size at the same time as SegWit.
This is like a dealer saying "hey gimme that $200 now, I just gotta run home and get your weed, I promise I'll be right back".
~ u/BitAlien
Barry Silbert's "proposal" is just another bait and switch
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/6btl26/barry_silberts_proposal_is_just_another_bait_and/
Right, so the wording is:
I agree to immediately support the activation of Segregated Witness and commit to effectuate a block size increase to 2MB within 12 months
[Based] on [their] previous performance [in the Hong Kong agreement - which they already broke], they're going to say, "Segregated Witness was a block size increase, to a total of 4MB, so we have delivered our side of the compromise."
~ u/edmundedgar
Barry is an investor in Blockstream. What else needs to be said?
~ u/coinlock
Nothing involving SegWit is a "compromise".
SegWit would basically hijack Bitcoin development forever - giving a permanent monopoly to the centralized, corrupt dev team of Core/Blockstream/AXA.
  • SegWit would impose a centrally planned blocksize of 1.7MB right now - too little and too late.
  • Segwit would permanently "cement" Core/Blockstream/AXA as the only people controlling Bitcoin development - forever.
If you are sick and tired of these attempts by Core/Blockstream/AXA to sabotage Bitcoin - then the last thing you should support is SegWit in any way, shape or form - even as some kind of so-called "compromise".
This is because SegWit is not primarily a "malleability fix" or a "capacity increase".
SegWit is a poison pill / trojan horse which would put the idiots and traitors at Core/Blockstream/AXA permanently and exclusively in control of Bitcoin development - forever and ever.
Here are the real problems with SegWit (which Core/Blockstream/AXA is not telling you about):
Initially, I liked SegWit. But then I learned SegWit-as-a-SOFT-fork is dangerous (making transactions "anyone-can-spend"??) & centrally planned (1.7MB blocksize??). Instead, Bitcoin Unlimited is simple & safe, with MARKET-BASED BLOCKSIZE. This is why more & more people have decided to REJECT SEGWIT.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5vbofp/initially_i_liked_segwit_but_then_i_learned/
Segwit cannot be rolled back because to non-upgraded clients, ANYONE can spend Segwit txn outputs. If Segwit is rolled back, all funds locked in Segwit outputs can be taken by anyone. As more funds gets locked up in segwit outputs, incentive for miners to collude to claim them grows.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5ge1ks/segwit_cannot_be_rolled_back_because_to/
"So, Core wants us to trust miners not to steal Segwit's anyone-can-spends, but will not let them have a say on block size. Weird."~Cornell U Professor and bitcoin researcher Emin Gün Sirer.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/60ac4q/so_core_wants_us_to_trust_miners_not_to_steal/
Brock Pierce's BLOCKCHAIN CAPITAL is part-owner of Bitcoin's biggest, private, fiat-funded private dev team (Blockstream) & biggest, private, fiat-funded private mining operation (BitFury). Both are pushing SegWit - with its "centrally planned blocksize" & dangerous "anyone-can-spend kludge".
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5sndsz/brock_pierces_blockchain_capital_is_partowner_of/
u/Luke-Jr invented SegWit's dangerous "anyone-can-spend" soft-fork kludge. Now he helped kill Bitcoin trading at Circle. He thinks Bitcoin should only hard-fork TO DEAL WITH QUANTUM COMPUTING. Luke-Jr will continue to kill Bitcoin if we continue to let him. To prosper, BITCOIN MUST IGNORE LUKE-JR.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5h0yf0/ulukejr_invented_segwits_dangerous_anyonecanspend/
"SegWit encumbers Bitcoin with irreversible technical debt. Miners should reject SWSF. SW is the most radical and irresponsible protocol upgrade Bitcoin has faced in its history. The scale of the code changes are far from trivial - nearly every part of the codebase is affected by SW" Jaqen Hash’ghar
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5rdl1j/segwit_encumbers_bitcoin_with_irreversible/
"We had our arms twisted to accept 2MB hardfork + SegWit. We then got a bait and switch 1MB + SegWit with no hardfork, and accounting tricks to make P2SH transactions cheaper (for sidechains and Lightning, which is all Blockstream wants because they can use it to control Bitcoin)." ~ u/URGOVERNMENT
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5ju5r8/we_had_our_arms_twisted_to_accept_2mb_hardfork/
Here is a list (on medium.com) of 13 articles that explain why SegWit would be bad for Bitcoin.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/646kmv/here_is_a_list_on_mediumcom_of_13_articles_that/
"Why is Flexible Transactions more future-proof than SegWit?" by u/ThomasZander
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5rbv1j/why_is_flexible_transactions_more_futureproof/
Core/Blockstream & their supporters keep saying that "SegWit has been tested". But this is false. Other software used by miners, exchanges, Bitcoin hardware manufacturers, non-Core software developers/companies, and Bitcoin enthusiasts would all need to be rewritten, to be compatible with SegWit
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5dlyz7/coreblockstream_their_supporters_keep_saying_that/
"SegWit [would] bring unnecessary complexity to the bitcoin blockchain. Huge changes it introduces into the client are a veritable minefield of issues, [with] huge changes needed for all wallets, exchanges, remittance, and virtually all bitcoin software that will use it." ~ u/Bitcoinopoly (self.btc)
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5jqgpz/segwit_would_bring_unnecessary_complexity_to_the/
3 excellent articles highlighting some of the major problems with SegWit: (1) "Core Segwit – Thinking of upgrading? You need to read this!" by WallStreetTechnologist (2) "SegWit is not great" by Deadalnix (3) "How Software Gets Bloated: From Telephony to Bitcoin" by Emin Gün Sirer
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5rfh4i/3_excellent_articles_highlighting_some_of_the/
Normal users understand that SegWit-as-a-softfork is dangerous, because it deceives non-upgraded nodes into thinking transactions are valid when actually they're not - turning those nodes into "zombie nodes". Greg Maxwell and Blockstream are jeopardizing Bitcoin - in order to stay in power.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4mnpxx/normal_users_understand_that_segwitasasoftfork_is/
As Benjamin Frankline once said: "Given a choice between Liberty (with a few Bugs), and Slavery (with no Bugs), a Free People will choose Liberty every time." Bitcoin Unlimited is liberty: market-based blocksizes. SegWit is slavery: centrally planned 1.7MB blocksize & "anyone-can-spend" transactions
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5zievg/as_benjamin_frankline_once_said_given_a_choice/
u/Uptrenda on SegWit: "Core is forcing every Bitcoin startup to abandon their entire code base for a Rube Goldberg machine making their products so slow, inconvenient, and confusing that even if they do manage to 'migrate' to this cluster-fuck of technical debt it will kill their businesses anyway."
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5e86fg/uuptrenda_on_segwit_core_is_forcing_every_bitcoin/
Just because something is a "soft fork" doesn't mean it isn't a massive change. SegWit is an alt-coin. It would introduce radical and unpredictable changes in Bitcoin's economic parameters and incentives. Just read this thread. Nobody has any idea how the mainnet will react to SegWit in real life.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5fc1ii/just_because_something_is_a_soft_fork_doesnt_mean/
Here are the real reasons why Core/Blockstream/AXA is terrified of hard forks:
"They [Core/Blockstream] fear a hard fork will remove them from their dominant position." ... "Hard forks are 'dangerous' because they put the market in charge, and the market might vote against '[the] experts' [at Core/Blockstream]" - ForkiusMaximus
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/43h4cq/they_coreblockstream_fear_a_hard_fork_will_remove/
The real reason why Core / Blockstream always favors soft-forks over hard-forks (even though hard-forks are actually safer because hard-forks are explicit) is because soft-forks allow the "incumbent" code to quietly remain incumbent forever (and in this case, the "incumbent" code is Core)
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4080mw/the_real_reason_why_core_blockstream_always/
Reminder: Previous posts showing that Blockstream's opposition to hard-forks is dangerous, obstructionist, selfish FUD. As many of us already know, the reason that Blockstream is against hard forks is simple: Hard forks are good for Bitcoin, but bad for the private company Blockstream.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4ttmk3/reminder_previous_posts_showing_that_blockstreams/
Core/Blockstream is living in a fantasy world. In the real world everyone knows (1) our hardware can support 4-8 MB (even with the Great Firewall), and (2) hard forks are cleaner than soft forks. Core/Blockstream refuses to offer either of these things. Other implementations (eg: BU) can offer both.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5ejmin/coreblockstream_is_living_in_a_fantasy_world_in/
If Blockstream were truly "conservative" and wanted to "protect Bitcoin" then they would deploy SegWit AS A HARD FORK. Insisting on deploying SegWit as a soft fork (overly complicated so more dangerous for Bitcoin) exposes that they are LYING about being "conservative" and "protecting Bitcoin".
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/57zbkp/if_blockstream_were_truly_conservative_and_wanted/
If some bozo dev team proposed what Core/Blockstream is proposing (Let's deploy a malleability fix as a "soft" fork that dangerously overcomplicates the code and breaks non-upgraded nodes so it's de facto HARD! Let's freeze capacity at 1 MB during a capacity crisis!), they'd be ridiculed and ignored
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5944j6/if_some_bozo_dev_team_proposed_what/
"Negotiations have failed. BS/Core will never HF - except to fire the miners and create an altcoin. Malleability & quadratic verification time should be fixed - but not via SWSF political/economic trojan horse. CHANGES TO BITCOIN ECONOMICS MUST BE THRU FULL NODE REFERENDUM OF A HF." ~ u/TunaMelt
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5e410j/negotiations_have_failed_bscore_will_never_hf/
The proper terminology for a "hard fork" should be a "FULL NODE REFERENDUM" - an open, transparent EXPLICIT process where everyone has the right to vote FOR or AGAINST an upgrade. The proper terminology for a "soft fork" should be a "SNEAKY TROJAN HORSE" - because IT TAKES AWAY YOUR RIGHT TO VOTE.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5e4e7d/the_proper_terminology_for_a_hard_fork_should_be/
Here are the real reasons why Core/Blockstream/AXA has been trying to choke the Bitcoin network and suppress Bitcoin's price & adoption. (Hint: Blockstream is controlled by central bankers who hate Bitcoin - because they will go bankrupt if Bitcoin succeeds as a major world currency).
Blockstream is now controlled by the Bilderberg Group - seriously! AXA Strategic Ventures, co-lead investor for Blockstream's $55 million financing round, is the investment arm of French insurance giant AXA Group - whose CEO Henri de Castries has been chairman of the Bilderberg Group since 2012.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/47zfzt/blockstream_is_now_controlled_by_the_bilderberg/
If Bitcoin becomes a major currency, then tens of trillions of dollars on the "legacy ledger of fantasy fiat" will evaporate, destroying AXA, whose CEO is head of the Bilderbergers. This is the real reason why AXA bought Blockstream: to artificially suppress Bitcoin volume and price with 1MB blocks.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4r2pw5/if_bitcoin_becomes_a_major_currency_then_tens_of/
Who owns the world? (1) Barclays, (2) AXA, (3) State Street Bank. (Infographic in German - but you can understand it without knowing much German: "Wem gehört die Welt?" = "Who owns the world?") AXA is the #2 company with the most economic poweconnections in the world. And AXA owns Blockstream.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5btu02/who_owns_the_world_1_barclays_2_axa_3_state/
Double standards: The other sub would go ballistic if Unlimited was funded by AXA. But they are just fine when AXA funds BS-core.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/62ykv1/double_standards_the_other_sub_would_go_ballistic/
The insurance company with the biggest exposure to the 1.2 quadrillion dollar (ie, 1200 TRILLION dollar) derivatives casino is AXA. Yeah, that AXA, the company whose CEO is head of the Bilderberg Group, and whose "venture capital" arm bought out Bitcoin development by "investing" in Blockstream.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4k1r7v/the_insurance_company_with_the_biggest_exposure/
Bilderberg Group -> AXA Strategic Ventures -> funds Blockstream -> Blockstream Core Devs. (The chairman of Bilderberg is Henri de Castries. The CEO of AXA Henri de Castries.)
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/576ac9/bilderberg_group_axa_strategic_ventures_funds/
Why is Blockstream CTO Greg Maxwell u/nullc trying to pretend AXA isn't one of the top 5 "companies that control the world"? AXA relies on debt & derivatives to pretend it's not bankrupt. Million-dollar Bitcoin would destroy AXA's phony balance sheet. How much is AXA paying Greg to cripple Bitcoin?
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/62htv0/why_is_blockstream_cto_greg_maxwell_unullc_trying/
Core/AXA/Blockstream CTO Greg Maxwell, CEO Adam Back, attack dog Luke-Jr and censor Theymos are sabotaging Bitcoin - but they lack the social skills to even feel guilty for this. Anyone who attempts to overrule the market and limit or hard-code Bitcoin's blocksize must be rejected by the community.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/689y1e/coreaxablockstream_cto_greg_maxwell_ceo_adam_back/
"I'm angry about AXA scraping some counterfeit money out of their fraudulent empire to pay autistic lunatics millions of dollars to stall the biggest sociotechnological phenomenon since the internet and then blame me and people like me for being upset about it." ~ u/dresden_k
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5xjkof/im_angry_about_axa_scraping_some_counterfeit/
Greg Maxwell used to have intelligent, nuanced opinions about "max blocksize", until he started getting paid by AXA, whose CEO is head of the Bilderberg Group - the legacy financial elite which Bitcoin aims to disintermediate. Greg always refuses to address this massive conflict of interest. Why?
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/4mlo0z/greg_maxwell_used_to_have_intelligent_nuanced/
This trader's price & volume graph / model predicted that we should be over $10,000 USD/BTC by now. The model broke in late 2014 - when AXA-funded Blockstream was founded, and started spreading propaganda and crippleware, centrally imposing artificially tiny blocksize to suppress the volume & price.
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5obe2m/this_traders_price_volume_graph_model_predicted/
Just as a reminder: The main funder of Blockstream is Henri de Castries, chairman of French insurance company AXA, and chairman of the Bilderberg Group!
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5uw6cc/just_as_a_reminder_the_main_funder_of_blockstream/
AXA/Blockstream are suppressing Bitcoin price at 1000 bits = 1 USD. If 1 bit = 1 USD, then Bitcoin's market cap would be 15 trillion USD - close to the 82 trillion USD of "money" in the world. With Bitcoin Unlimited, we can get to 1 bit = 1 USD on-chain with 32MB blocksize ("Million-Dollar Bitcoin")
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5u72va/axablockstream_are_suppressing_bitcoin_price_at/
Bitcoin can go to 10,000 USD with 4 MB blocks, so it will go to 10,000 USD with 4 MB blocks. All the censorship & shilling on r\bitcoin & fantasy fiat from AXA can't stop that. BitcoinCORE might STALL at 1,000 USD and 1 MB blocks, but BITCOIN will SCALE to 10,000 USD and 4 MB blocks - and beyond
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5jgkxv/bitcoin_can_go_to_10000_usd_with_4_mb_blocks_so/
And finally, here's one easy way that Bitcoin can massively succeed without SegWit - and even without the need for any other major or controversial changes to the code:
Bitcoin Original: Reinstate Satoshi's original 32MB max blocksize. If actual blocks grow 54% per year (and price grows 1.542 = 2.37x per year - Metcalfe's Law), then in 8 years we'd have 32MB blocks, 100 txns/sec, 1 BTC = 1 million USD - 100% on-chain P2P cash, without SegWit/Lightning or Unlimited
https://np.reddit.com/btc/comments/5uljaf/bitcoin_original_reinstate_satoshis_original_32mb/
submitted by ydtm to btc [link] [comments]

[original research / proposal] [codenamed: BUTTBREAKER] A Million Little Shitchains

This concept is guaranteed to annoy you or your money back!
This builds on the 100,000 tps proposal. To recap, I've thrown together 100 clonecoins with 50MB cap each "into one large Voltron Coin", as SoCo_cpp aptly put it.
Now I'm going to wave my hand, wait for the ding, and level up to exascale technology. So terabytes are basically kilobytes now.
Our previous "Voltron Coin" will be termed "MegaBlockA" (MBA) and will have become the new Bitcoin: it's top by marketshare and stagnating. It has 100,000 tps throughput, which should be enough for anyone, and a fee market is now developing. Dice transactions have started to be labeled as spam, and bible verses now cost $1 or more to embed in the megachain (composed of all 100 subsidiary clonecoin chains).
A Commodore of Industry develops a bold, new scheme: a million little shitchains. A million generic chains are created, and organized into 1,000 blockchain units each on the model of MBA, termed MegaShitChain1 through MegaShitChain1000. A controlling overchain, known as the UltraShitChain (USC), is similarly composed of those MegaShitChains. One USC represents a coin on each of the one million shitcoins, through being one coin in each of the MegaShitChains.
The total throughput available for USC transactions on the shitcoins would be one billion transactions per second, based on the 50 MB block size hard cap and 1 minute block rate of the clones. The total disk space and bandwidth necessary in order to keep a full USC node synchronized will be greater than that needed for a modern NSA data center, but we're in exascale, so it'll be like a $5 calculator.
Prohashing is the new Google, as Scrypt mining becomes the most profitable industry in the world. AmericanPegasus is on CNN every night warning about how cryptocurrency has now developed into a bubble and investors should consider putting their money into conventional equities instead as a hedge. Subsistence farmers in Africa invest a dollar into USC and cash out for millions (of shitcoins worth less than a dollar collectively which are then sold to neighbors). Euphoria and weaseldust run rampant on the streets and hospitals are overwhelmed with overdoses.
And that's the story of how scale-out solved throughput.
Usecases
Decentralized mining
The NSA can sponsor a ProHashing underwater Scrypt mining megacenter in each of the seven oceans (more depending on how one counts). The accelerated ocean warming should be ideal for swimming (may not be ideal for swimming; no warranty of fitness of warmed oceans for swimming should be implied).
Tradebots / SkyNet 2.0
Autonomous, intelligent tradebots become massively wealthy trading between the million underlying shitcoins. These bots become leading patrons of the Robot Supremacy movement which is a major advance in sentient being rights overall, although human rights suffer a bit incidentally during the uprising and for a few centuries thereafter.
Weaseldust Road
The ultimate in weaseldust markets, Weaseldust Road is hosted on the USC ultrashitchain itself and is its killer app. The Weaseldust Road client, codenamed HONEYPOT, is a full USC node combined with a few trojans and a GUI for accessing Weaseldust Road. Featuring suspiciously low prices on weaseldust as well as some sellers with long-term (1+ month) exit scams who provide excellent service in the meantime, Weaseldust Road quickly becomes the leading weaseldust marketplace, as well as being the second place market for buying alpaca socks with USC (behind Alpaca Road, which is the second leading weaseldust marketplace).
In fact, Weaseldust Road's legendary abilities as a killer app will ultimately be memorialized in the song Weaseldust Road, with the "you never come back from Weaseldust Road" refrain, a tribute to the Copperhead Road song linked above, as well as to the wave of weaseldust-related deaths linked by critics to the rise of Weaseldust Road.
Proofs
1=1, therefore, quod erat demonstrandum.
I can conceive of it, and I can imagine that it necessarily exists, therefore, it exists.
If a thousand angels can dance on the head of a pin, and if the Lightning Network can handle infinite throughput, and if the weaseldust supply lasts, and if the USC ICO raises at least 22 million BTC in value, then USC will be created and trade above its par value of 1 satoshi per million USC.
lorem ipsum, nil illegitimi carborundum, hocus pocus
submitted by coinaday to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Blake2B, CryptoNight and Equihash ASIC Cloud Mining available at HashGains

DELAWARE CITY, Del.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–In the booming cryptocurrency mining industry, investors are continuously on the hunt for better margins and have got serious reasons to cheer for the leading cloud mining company HashGains. The company has over 10,000 customers enjoying returns from Bitcoin mining, ethereum mining and other altcoins.
HashGains has become the first player to introduce Blake2B, CryptoNight and Equihash algorithm’s mining services from its highly advanced and automated platform using ASIC (Application specific integrated circuit) machines.
Mining for currencies like Siacoin (SC), Monero (XMR), Bitcoin Gold(BTG), Zcash (ZEC), Bytom (BTM) etc. was only possible through a GPU platform but with the introduction of ASIC cloud mining all these currencies have become highly profitable in comparison to mining of Bitcoin and Ethereum etc. Mining returns are variable depending on various factors like difficulty levels and competition but at the moment Monero seems to be giving highest ROI of over 700%.
Unlike other companies, HashGains is highly transparent and provides a complete view of mining returns by way of its mining returns calculator to all its customers.
HashGains is also introducing mining services where customers can choose the algorithm and mining currency of their choice which will enable users to pick the profitable mining options. The company assures the delivery of mining services of Monero, Zcash, Bytom & Ethereum ASIC Mining within 24 hours of order. HashGains is known for transparency and timely payouts to thousands of investors.
HashGains crowdsale program is a huge success!
HashGains has successfully concluded its crowdsale program on 30th April 2018 with total collections of $9.1 million from its HGS token sale which would help us to start one of the two data centers planned. A total of 12,6,58,650 tokens have been sold at an average price of $0.72 per token.
HashGains has launched the ICO program with the name of HGS token in order to build mega eco-friendly cloud mining data centers which runs on renewable energy sources (solar and wind) in Canada and India.
Promoted by Cyfuture, a renowned name in cloud data centers with over 15 years of experience and serving some Fortune 500 companies, HashGains is a constantly growing platform with more than 10,000 customers. source
submitted by SwitchKanun to hashflareinfo [link] [comments]

How much energy is Bitcoin Mining really taking up, I did some Math

After seeing the new hashrate and difficulty I started to wonder just how much electricity we are using to mine.
So here is the math:
Name Value
Hash 171 PetaHash
Hashs per joule 1000 Megahash
joules 171 Mega Joules
MWh/yr 1 497 960
Watts/person in US 1402
US persons worth of power 121 968 people
in kWH 4 104 000
Cost at US electricity prices $492 480 per day
We are consuming 121 thousand people's worth of electricity to make new coins.
In terms of energy cost that is 492 thousand per day. While in the last 24 hours 4175 bitcoins were rewarded at a value of 2.2 million.
sources: http://bitinfocharts.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_electricity_consumption https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining_Hardware_Comparison http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electricity_pricing#Price_comparison
submitted by InquisitiveIntent to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

365 mh/s Ethereum mining rig  Best price per hash  MineBox12 mining case!? This Bitcoin Price Metric Is Up 940% Since BTC $20,000 High  Chainlink (LINK) Nears $5 ATH Bitcoin Mining Using Android Phone !!  Easiest and Safest ... 80% of all Bitcoins already Mined - 4.2 Million Left to be Mined - What This Means For Crypto Market How much can you earn bitcoin mining on nicehash

Accurate Bitcoin mining calculator trusted by millions of cryptocurrency miners since May 2013 - developed by an OG Bitcoin miner looking to maximize on mining profits and calculate ROI for new ASIC miners. Updated in 2020, the newest version of the Bitcoin mining calculator makes it simple and easy to quickly calculate mining profitability for your Bitcoin mining hardware. #2. Bitcoin Hash Rate Hits Fresh All-Time High. Amid the rising prices, the bitcoin network recently printed a new all-time high. A pseudonymous Twitter account named The Moon pointed out that bitcoin’s hash rate clocked up more than 123 quintillion hashes per second. According to him, this is an indication that the flagship crypto asset is “screaming for a huge bull run leading into the ... MH/s (Mega-Hash per Second) = 1 000 000 Hashes/s. GH/s (Giga-Hash per Second) = 1 000 000 000 Hashes/s. TH/s (Tera-Hash per Second) = 1 000 000 000 000 Hashes/s . Note: Except the symbol of k in kH/s all other unit is upper-case. The capital K represents Kelvin which is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units. Like this tool? You might also like our Bitcoin Satoshi ... The human rate of hashing is .67 hashes per day. Based on a price of $1 million for one bitcoin, that would translate to a break even salary of one million-billionth of a penny per hour. Probably be hard to find good people at that rate. >Its not racism to make factually accurate observations. That is not as true as it sounds at first glance. For example, a statement like "blacks are more ... And this hash power or guessing attempts are made by miners who mine the Bitcoin blocks by a process called Bitcoin mining. To understand more about hash power see this short video on hash power or hash rate which perfectly explains it. How Is The Hash Rate Measured & its Unit? Hash rate, as I said, is a unit measured in hashes per second or [h/s] and here are some usual denominations used to ...

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365 mh/s Ethereum mining rig Best price per hash MineBox12 mining case!?

But what effect will the booming hash rate have on the price of BTC? According to Bitcoin investor and the co-host of the Keiser Report, Max Keiser, BTC is likely to follow the hash rate higher ... In this video I am running the modded X11 kernel and achieving 22 1/2 mega hashes per second. If you have not already update your software to get the modded kernel and double your hash rate. BITCOIN BREAKOUT TO THIS PRICE IMMINENT & "THIS ALTCOIN: 100x!!!!!" w. DavinciJ15 ... How Much Antminer S9 can make per month + unboxing and giveaway winner - 4K - Duration: 14:00. How Much ... The next miner halving will take place within two years, approximately in early June 2020 depending on hashrate, bringing the rewards down to 6.25 BTC per mined block. Hello everyone, Today's video is about how to mine Bitcoins using Android. Hope you folks enjoy :) *Comments of the video are disabled due to high number of ...

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